This study is on urban growth and housing problem. Four objectives were raised which included; to determine the causes of housing problem in Nigeria, to determine the causes of urban growth in Nigeria, to ascertain the relationship between urban growth and housing problem in Nigeria and to ascertain the solution to housing problem in urban area. In line with these objectives, two research hypotheses were formulated and two null hypotheses were posited. The total population for the study is 200 staff of ministry of lands, housing and urban development was selected randomly. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made up of directors of administration, secretaries, senior staff and junior staff was used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies
Urbanization is the increasing number of people in urban areas resulting to the development of towns and cities. This is usually as a result of the movement of people from rural to urban areas leading to population growth in towns and cities. Urbanization is not only characterized by demographic change but involves social change, technological advancement and economic transformation. These changes are influenced by social, political and geographical factors and therefore vary from one geographical location to another. Urbanization is increasing rapidly in most African countries, and the major factors for the rapid increase relate to large scale migration from rural areas to the urban areas for better economic opportunities. Other factors are natural increase of the population, and uneven concentration of investments by governments and private organizations in the cities compared to rural areas. Housing is a residential structure where man lives and grows. It is therefore universally acknowledged as one of the most basic human needs for survival on the surface of the Earth. The demand for housing has been an issue of global concern as the housing provision still remains one of the most difficult problems facing humanity. It is reported that more than one billion people, i.e. about one quarter of the world population live without shelter or in unhealthy and unacceptable housing conditions. The most adversely affected by inadequate or lacks of housing are the urban poor, who constitute the majority in the developing countries especially Nigeria. According to a United Nations Report, the developing countries of Africa and Asia consist of cities which now account for over 90 percent of the world urban population growth. Despite the rapid rate of urbanization in developing countries like Nigeria, evidence revealed a rapid decrease in the provision of new housing, as well as poor state and inadequate urban housing infrastructures to support the increasing population. Therefore, in developing countries where there is rapid urbanization, the problem of inadequate housing for the people constitutes one of the major challenges to economic development and the welfare of the citizens. The Draft of the National Urban Development Policy notes that Nigerian towns are growing without adequate planning. Besides, urbanization in Nigeria is characterized by unplanned growth, deteriorating infrastructure and inadequate housing. In addition, Abiodun and Segun (2005) assessed the housing conditions in a typical Nigerian town. They found that most of the houses fall short of the basic requirements of decent accommodation and are therefore not conducive for human habitation. Moreover, Amao (2012) examined the rate of urbanization, housing quality and environmental degeneration in Nigeria. He discovered that poor housing quality has serious adverse effects on the environment and the health of city residents. Bhatta (2010) highlighted the negative impact of urban growth on the environment which includes increased temperature, poor air quality, impact on water quality and quantity and impact on public health. Similarly, Oyeleye (2013) observed that the challenges of urban growth in Nigeria include housing problems, food insecurity and climate change which all have impact on the environment and livelihood. Similarly, Chindo (2013) analyzed the spatial growth of the greater Cities in Nigeria. He discovered that the consequences of urban growth could be positive or negative. The positive impact includes increasing GNP and increasing recognition. However, the negative impact includes unplanned growth and dilapidated houses. Many cities in Nigeria are experiencing unprecedented and rapid rate of urbanization. Like cities in Abuja since the relocation of the FCT to Abuja in 1991 and the proximity of the settlements around the territory brought sudden economic prosperity to the area, and these have transformed cities in Abuja from a remote rural settlement to a vibrant urban area. Many cities in Nigeria has an annual growth rate of over 40% owing to the rapid rate of urban growth and economic development principally as a result of the influx of migrants from other parts of the country. In this view the researcher wants to investigate the urban growth and housing problem in Nigeria.
Urbanization is increasing rapidly in most African countries, and the major factors for the rapid increase relate to large scale migration from rural areas to the urban areas for better economic opportunities. Other factors are natural increase of the population, and uneven concentration of investments by governments and private organizations in the cities compared to rural areas. Housing is a residential structure where man lives and grows. It is therefore universally acknowledged as one of the most basic human needs for survival on the surface of the Earth. The demand for housing has been an issue of global concern as the housing provision still remains one of the most difficult problems facing humanity.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main objective of this study is urban growth and housing problem in Nigeria. But for the successful completion of the study; the researcher intends to achieve the following sub-objectives;
- To determine the causes of housing problem in Nigeria
- To determine the causes of urban growth in Nigeria
- To ascertain the relationship between urban growth and housing problem in Nigeria
- To ascertain the solution to housing problem in urban area
For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;
H0: there are no causes of housing problem in Nigeria
H1: there are causes of housing problem in Nigeria
H02: there is no significant relationship between urban growth and housing problem
H2: there is a significant relationship between urban growth and housing problem.
- SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is believed that at the completion of the study, the findings will be of benefit to those living in the urban area. The study will also be of great benefit to the researchers who intends to embark on research on similar topics as it will serve as a guide. Finally, the study will be of great importance to academia’s, lecturers, teachers, students and the general public.
- SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study covers urban growth and housing problem in Nigeria. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;
- a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
- b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
- c) Organizational privacy: Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities.