THE EFFECTS OF EMPLOYEES PARTICIPATION IN DECISION MAKING ON WORK PERFORMANCE
This research work was aimed at trying to find out the effects of job satisfaction on employees performance in an organization, and to examine the causes and the extent of job dissatisfaction among workers. The researcher relied on the questionnaires on the employees of the organizations and some information obtained through interview that was held with the personnel manager. At the end of the research work, the researcher discovered that majority of the employees were satisfied with the; work itself, prestige, achievement, advancement, self-fulfillment, growth, supervision, working environment and interpersonal relations. Also, majority of the workers were dissatisfied with their promotion, salary, job security, administration and status. The research reviewed that the organization has an organization and training programme for all categories of staff except the menial staff and typist/stenographers. However, there is still room for improvement in the organizations (First Bank of Nigeria Pic).
The research recommends that management should try as much as possible to give constant attention to issues that can enhance job satisfaction such as creation of avenue for exposure/added responsibility the employees. The employers should have the senses of belonging and job security. There should be profit sharing scheme in the organization and good working condition as well as promoting them as at when due.
The management should review its present salary scale to meet the needs of the workers. This is necessary because a frustrated. Staff who had long been very loyal and sincere in discharging his/her duties can be involved or plan defrauding the organization huge sums of money or even sell the idea on how to execute such frauds successfully instead of exposing fraud.
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
There is an adage which states that "two good heads are better than one”, another similar one asserts that "A tree cannot make a forest", nor a man an Island. Doing to some psychological, economic and biological limitations of the individuals, it becomes unavoidable that individuals should co-operate with one another to be able to surmount the many problems facing them. Similarly, in the business world the business manager is faced with a lot of problems and task to perform in his organization. Some of these problems are indigenous, that is within the organization, as a responsible must therefore prepare himself in order to compete favorably in the dynamic business environment so as to achieve the set objectives of the organization this has further been strengthened by the urge to discover and know more about the individual in the organizational goal.
According to Mc Gregor (1960) participation is a metal and emotional involvement of persons in group situation that encourages them to make their own contribution toward grove goals and share responsibility for them. Managers sometimes need the assistance of employees in order to function and in order to make decision. They need information in the form of suggestions, view and ideas from both superior and subordinates to prepare the strategic technique and immediate plans of action that affect them when subordinates are involved in the decision making process certain advantages can be expected.
The subordinates will show greater interest in identification with organizational goal. (This should lead to better individual performances). The quality of decisions will improve as a result. One of the problems in choosing between alternatives is the anticipation of reaction by subordinates to the decision and by bringing them into the decision making process one is able to learn their reaction before the decision is made. There will be fewer grievances and a reduced tendency to absenteeism, lateness and labour turnover. There will be greater willingness to accept authority and a lower resistance to change. From my own point of view a subordinate wants to feel useful and important participating in decision - making and work performance they want to belong ad be recognized as individuals meaning such that needs can even be more important than money in motivating people to work.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEMS
When subordinates are involved in the decision making process, certain advantages can be expected. One of the problems in choosing between alternatives is the anticipation of reaction by subordinates to the decision and by bringing them into the decision making process one is able to learn their reaction before the decision is made. There will be fewer grievances and a reduced tendency to absenteeism, lateness and labour turnover.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The concept of participation has been misunderstood by many since its involvement for the field of human relations in view of misunderstanding the problem of this study. The study further seeks.
· The extent to which participation of workers in decision making affects work performance.
· To identify the different levels of participation tn decision making on work performance.
· To identify the different motivational impact of the different levels of participation in decision making on work performance.
1.4 STATEMENT HYPOTHESES
If there is a relationship between participation in decision making and work performance.
That employee’s attitude and past experience affect the degree of participation necessary for performance.
1.5 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Gathering of data from First Bank Nigeria Pic. This is also followed by analysis from the bank. The secondary method involves getting also already complied data as result, some data which was originally collected for some purpose other than helping solve the researcher's current problem may not be all that reliable. Secondary data can be used to aid planning provide information, facilitate problems solving and to serve as a means of evaluation. Data will be obtained from both primary and secondary data. Primary source includes personal interview and questionnaires; primary data provides accurate, timely and adequate information. Secondary data will also be collected from books, journals and newspapers. Simple random sampling techniques will also be used.
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This study suffers a lot of limitations, some of which include limited time, financial constraints and so on. Firstly, time will act as the. Greatest limitation on this study since this work involves the effect of employees in decision making "case study" "FIRST BANK NIG PLC" within a specified or a given period of time. As earlier pointed out the researcher is restricted to branches in Lagos this' obviously hinders the extent of generalization from the findings. Lack of adequate finance hinder the work a, great deal coupled with the increasing cost of materials. Generally, the study involves sampling both managers and employees, problems were encountered interacting with top managers in particular. Since interacting withthem is only made possible through prior booking. This affected the plan to only interview the managerial order and give questionnaire to the low level employee. The researcher is therefore forced to give questionnaire to both which will not provide response that is detailed enough. Also the disadvantages synonymous with leaving questionnaire with respondent for some time may have reduced the validity of this study. Respondent might have discussed their response with friends and relatives with the result been bias, so it has been limited to personal interview with immediate response.
1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study is supposed to throw more light on the issue of employee participation in decision making and the performance relationship. A study of how employeeparticipates in decision making in organizations, should therefore enable a greater group and improved understanding of how the organization manage their human resources. In addition it will enable employers to know whether employees are satisfied with the supervisory approach of allowing workers to participate in decisions that concern them. This also will enable management to take necessary action in determining the best approach to manager employees. We should also be able to achieve a greater understanding of the various variables that affect participation in decision making perhaps of greater pertinence is the potential the study might have towards providing a sound basis for the development of employees to aid management decision making in organizations in Lagos.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
In this research work, the following terms are consistently used:
Participation in: As a special case of delegation subordinate gains greater control, greater freedom of choice with respect to his own responsibility.
Decision Making: As a course of action consciously chosen from an Available alterative for the purpose of achieving a Desired result
Work Performance: The extent to which a worker does his job In relation to establish standard, which is Expected from him.
Employees: Are different categories of workers, both at the managerial, supervisory and lower level employees employed in the company under study.
Employers: These are owner of the company, they are the One that employ different categories of people.
Participation:is a mental and emotional involvement of per-son in a group situation that encourage them to make their own contribution towards group goals and share responsibility for them.
Selection practices: Corporate activities that relate to the movementof people among positions through both promo- tion and external bring.
Appraisal Practices: Feedback system that examines and ensure the different kinds of corporate activities that relate to the movement of people among positions through both promotion and external bring.
Rewards/ Compensation: System through which employees are recog- nized and compensated for doing good work.
Developmental Practices: Improve the match between employees’ skills And the demands of their jobs.