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THE EFFECT OF TRAINING ON EMPLOYEES’ JOB SATISFACTION IN AFRICAN PETROLEUM PLC
This study investigated the effect of training on job satisfaction among the staff of African Petroleum. Thirty - four (34) employees were selected - from the organization. Among the employees, 35% were juniors and 65% were seniors, 76% trained and 24% untrained, 56% male and 44% female, 59010 promoted and 41 % not promoted. The research design adopted was field survey. Questionnaires were administered randomly to selected staff of the organization. The data collected were subjected to independent T -test analysis and the hypothesis tested for significance. The criteria for rejection of Null hypothesis was 0.5 level of significance. The results of the study revealed that although there is a positive relationship between training and job satisfaction, it (and other variables examined) does not significantly affect job satisfaction and hence, the result corroborate the fact in literature that job satisfaction is not determined by one factor, but by an interplay of individuals, socio - cultural, organizational and environmental factors.
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
When individuals assume their positions, know what is expected of them and have been chosen with basic skills and abilities to do the job, their performance may not be satisfactory. The role of training in the improvement of performance cannot be over emphasized. It provides skills, knowledge and attitude necessary for improved performance. Training and development is an activity made necessary because of the dynamic nature of the environment in which organization exist as well as by the changes that occur in its human resources. The organization and the individual share responsibility for career development and management. For any organization to protect and enhance its investment human resources it should designed career “ladders “or paths people can take to assume greater responsibility, develop new skills and abilities and attain promotions order for the organization to grow and remain viable in light of changing conditions in its environment. Its human resources must adapt to that dynamic environment by continually adding new skills, knowledge and abilities to their repertoire. It is through training and development programmes that the personnel department is able to help upgrade and add existing competence level of an organization’s labour pool. The performance of a jobholder may not be satisfactory at the entry point, although he may have the basic skills abilities to do the job. Training provides skills, knowledge and attitude necessary for improved performance.
The challenge today in the business world is to develop a much more market-driven organization without losing reliability and meticulous attention to details underpinned by sound ethnical principles, which remain essential, continued and sustained success. Training programmes must be drawn to assist in realizing or meeting up the above challenges (Prior, 1991). It is true that an adequate supply of physical and financial resources with an entrepreneurial spirit and executive initiative to utilize these resources would ensure the economic development of the organization Banjoko (1996). However, the human factor in an organization - be it private or public - is central to the growth, viability and survival of any organization. Therefore, the effective acquisition, utilization and maintenance of the organization's human resources cannot be overlooked.
The appropriate technology for achieving co-operate growth has been coupled or developed by people. People also exploit, examine or manipulate their immediate environment in their various spheres of life and the result is utilized either as challenges or prospects for the organizations (Banjoko, 1996). All businesses require skilled people on various fields for its survival. Training is an essential method of getting workers equipped with different aspects of skills, which can lead to increased productivity, Sometimes; this increase can be achieved by a change in working system or by automation, which will require training in the use of the system or new equipment.
Increased productivity can also be achieved by helping workers to realize that profit can be increased by reducing cost through adequate training. Quality of products or services in any business can only be achieved if workers are exposed to training that would help them work with quality in mind and implement a given quality approach. Training to some extent is used to reduce the change of mistakes and also to instruct workers on the actions they should take when mistakes occur. Mistakes in business could bring potential cost to the organization. It can be cost of rectifying the mistakes, dent to the company's image or compensation if life is involved.
Training has become an even more important organizational activity in the last few decades. One such reason for this is that many advances in technology have greatly influence the work people do in organizations. Many jobs have become automated and specialized. Furthermore, as organizations become more complex, jobs become more specialized in all organizational level. Also, as an organization becomes more interested in providing a career orientation to their members, skills, ability and knowledge must be added periodically to member repertoires through formal training programs to enable individuals assume higher-level positions as their careers advance. But with this increasing attention to training must come a concern for training not just for increased productivity, but also satisfaction of employees; it appears these two cannot be successfully separated from each other.
In any organizational setting, people develop and change as other factors such as technology, time etc. changes. The development or changes occur in unsystematic form as people learn and integrate themselves into the organization, On the other hand, the systematic fashion is when programmes of planned training and development are organized in a bid to improve the knowledge and skills that people have. Training represents a positive stand for persons or individuals entering the world of work and those changing from one work to the other. Therefore, it is vital that training should be well designed so as to provide needed skills and knowledge to perform in the new function and to obtain needed promotion.
In many organizations today training is termed to belong to source sections or branches rather than seen as what every staff should be involved in because of its contribution to employees and organizational growth. A clear and comprehensive process for staff growth must be laid out at the start of an employee's career. Many are of the opinion that training is not necessary in that the time and demand of the job does not give room for such luxury. Today's society agrees that any intelligent person recognizes the necessity for life-long learning (Kozoll, 1974). The society itself is dynamic with a lot of changes in processes, new discoveries, and advancement in technology. The individual performance can be enhanced if the skills and knowledge needed to perform the job is acquired through systematic training. Most, people regard training as instrumental for earning entry into and enjoying the satisfaction associated with the world of work (Goldstein, 1989). In other words, training is seen by employees, managers and organizations as providing solution to work issues. This could be seen in the new contracts by labour unions, which demands provision for continuous training of workers.
Researchers have found out that without adequate systematic plan for staff training and development, an organization cannot function effectively (Arnold J., Cooper C.C and Robertson I. T., 1995). Also, Davies (1972) pointed out that both too little and too much training could cause problems. Before any meaningful training can take place, assessment of training needs must be carried out in needs assessment, and three levels of analysis are involved namely organization, occupation and perspective for the analysis of training needs. Experts are agreed that organization progress effectiveness are dependent upon at least two major factors - increased productivity and employees satisfaction on their job, Cooper and Robertson observe, staff training and development essential to effective functioning of organization. In view of these therefore, coupled with the ongoing burgeoning enquiry into the nature of the relationships between training and employees job satisfaction, a research of this kind is both timely and essential.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In order for an organization to grow and remain viable in the light of changing conditions in its environment, its human resources must adapt to that dynamic environment by continually adding new skills, knowledge and abilities to their repertoire. In many Nigerian organizations employees are expected to perform their tasks efficiently as soon as they assume their positions with the assumption that they have already acquired necessary skills and abilities. The performance of such employees has been average and this has resulted in low performance. These organizations want their staff to perform better, to be more efficient, innovative and highly versatile. These qualities can only come from purposeful and result oriented training. In many organizations today, training and development is tied to some sections or branches (Administration or Human Resources) rather than seen as what every staff should partake of because of its contribution to employees and organizational growth. Many are of the opinion that training is not necessary and that the time and demand of the job does not give room for such luxury, they therefore discourage the staff from going for training. This research work will centre on determining the role training plays in the lives of workers, especially their job performance and satisfaction.
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The broad objective of the study was to carry out research to uncover the effect of training on job satisfaction among the staff of African Petroleum PIc. See AP Diary, 2012, for information about the organization. The specific objective were:
(i) To examine the relationship between training and job satisfaction among the staff of both organizations;
(ii) To investigate the relationship between the position of staff and their job satisfaction;
(iii) To investigate the relationship between the gender of staff and job satisfaction; and
(iv) To examine the relationship between promotion and job satisfaction.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study contributes in some way to a greater understanding of the relationship between training and job satisfaction. It among others, draws attention to the for that although training is an indispensable element and a major determining factor in employee job satisfaction, it must be carried out in conjunction with other carefully crafted strategies aimed at meeting the many (individual and collective) needs of the employees. By showing a positive relationship between training and job satisfaction, the study lends credence to the ongoing 'campaign' to get the management of organizations in the country, irrespective of their industry, to start handling the training of their staff with the seriousness it requires.
1.5 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study could not be extended to the staff of the organization outside Lagos for some reason: unwillingness of the management of permit the researcher to visit the other branches for the purpose; time and financial constraints. Again, apart from the questionnaires administered to the 68 staff of the organization the staff were unwilling to respond to oral interviews these could have provided additional and supporting information to those we got from their responses in the questionnaires.
The researcher intended to reach a large sample of the staff population, but a large number of the staff turned in the questionnaires blank (without responses). Suspicion on the part of the respondents was a major barrier to the study. Very many staff of the organization approached were afraid to answer a lot of the questions asked because they feared that the report could get to the management of their organization and this spite of repeated assurance given by the researcher that the project is an academic endeavour. In fact, some blatantly refused to be interviewed because according to them, their company's management might be sponsoring the project.
1.6 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The research questions examined in the study are:
1. Is there any difference between trained and untrained staff in terms of job satisfaction?
2. Is there any relationship between motivation and job satisfaction?
3. Is there any relationship between work environment and job satisfaction?
4. Is there any difference between promoted and unpromoted employees in terms of job satisfaction?
1.7 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
1. There is no relationship between appraisal scores of employees before and after training.
2. There is no relationship between salary and job satisfaction.
3. There is no relationship promotion and training.
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