One of the most serious problems of urban housing provision in Nigeria, and in particular Anantigha Calabar metropolis, is the issue of poor housing quality. The slum housing conditions in most houses of the low income socio-economic group in this area is dehumanizing. This study therefore provides insight into the quality of housing in Anantigha Calabar. The study used a combination of questionnaires, interview schedules, check-lists and focused group discussions as instruments of collecting data as well as the principal component analysis as a major statistical tool to account for most of the variance in the set of variables used. The study established the social, economic and demographic profile of Anantigha residents in Calabar, as well as the pattern of housing characteristics across the metropolis. The study reviews the policy implications and recommends policy guidelines for future development of qualitative housing in Anantigha metropolis.
The diversity of buildings, their great historical and cultural value, the uniqueness of the spatial aspect, the richness of architectural forms and details, and the trees often found there, all have a substantial influence on the quality of housing as perceived by the residents. The qualities of spatial aspect and layout, often supplemented by the specific manner in which they are used, make these areas interesting and pleasant, as well as places of attraction for many citizens of the town, and visitors from afar. The age structure of the population undergoes changes that will influence housing requirements. According to United Nations (1997), the adult population in the 20 to 60 year age group will also increase and they play important role in the founding of new households and in the demand for quality housing. As pointed by Nwabueze and Oyekanmi (1992), housing is important as it provides shelter against insecurity to life and property that animals and dangerous or unfriendly fellow human beings can constitute. However, these roles expected of housing in the urban environment, and national economy contrast sharply with the present housing conditions in Anantigha area. As the movement of population to urban areas accelerates, the social costs of haphazard growth are certain to rise (Bichi, 2008). This is so, not only because changes connected with this phenomenon are remarkably rapid, but also because migrants are often persons of childbearing age, so that migration also has an indirect impact on birth rates which will in turn require additional housing (Goodchild and Cole, 2001). The most visible problem third world city faces is the need to provide decent, sanitary, attractive housing for its growing population. The correlation between housing problems and third world cities is very strong. “The topic of urban centres in Africa, Asia and Latin America conjures up immediate images of agglomerations of make-shift shacks, bulging with families, unpaved and puddle paths, people cooking, doing laundry etc., out-of- doors, and everywhere salvage and garbage” (United Nations,1998). Slums are ubiquitous features of the urban landscape and although definitions have varied over time and space, it has been generally accepted that the basic characteristics of slums, such as low economic status, overcrowding, poor housing condition, and poor sanitation and health have almost universal applicability with variations primarily a matter of degree. The process of slum formation include: Rural – urban migration, changes in urban land use patterns, local zones of residence, variation in rental values, proximity to workplace, housing shortages and maintenance problems, as well as “Slum Clearance” policies in certain urban areas. The issue of livability has become very pressing of late, especially with the increasing environmental deterioration in the large, metropolitan centres. It involves not only living conditions but also ease of circulation in the city. Both in the rapidly growing industrial centres and the stagnating traditional centres, living conditions have been worsening over the years. In the former, there is a tremendous pressure of population on limited facilities and this is manifested in the growth of squatter settlements, overcrowded habitation, breakdown of waste disposal arrangements, inadequate water and power supply and generally poor environmental sanitation. Matznetter (2002) argued that massive immigration has resulted in a high rate of disrepair and dilapidation. In the latter, the reverse is the case. Massive emigration has meant excess capacity in housing, resulting in a high rate of disrepair and dilapidation. However, it is only in the larger metropolitan centres that circulation is becoming a serious problem.
1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Housing development in Anantigha, Calabar has been found to be a part of the challenges faced by residence of the locality. This problem has been more pronounced owing to the rapid population growth, environmental degradation, emergence of shanty streets, problem of waste disposal and “slum clearance” policies of the government in certain areas. All of these represent colossal urban housing problems even outside Anantigha.
1.2 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The study sought to assess the housing development trends in Anantigha, Calabar.
Specifically, this research seeks to assess:
1) The insight into the quality of housing in Anantigha Calabar;
2) The socio-economic and demographic variables of houses found in Anantigha.
3) The private sector and government contribution and participation in the housing strategies for the betterment of the Anantigha residence.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What are the different trends of houses in Anantigha?
2. What is the perception of residents on the kind of houses and housing provision?
3. What are the contributions of government and private sector in ensuring adequate and durable houses for individuals?
4. What can be done about the poor condition of houses in Anantigha and how it can be effectively developed?
1.4 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS
This study formulated the following hypothesis:
Ho: there is no significance development trends in houses found in Anantigha in terms of resident’s satisfaction.
H1: good measures, practical performance, and new strategies have shown significant development in housing and its development trends.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study is significant for the following reasons:
i) It is an attempt to bring into the general public the trends of housing development.
ii) The finding of this study is also significant to residents of Anantigha, private and government organization and the general public at large
iii) It is an avenue for assessing the durability and components, materials and ways houses are being developed.
iv) Practicing managers will also find this study rich and ideal reference material as it recognizes ways and tools to tackle problem of housing and housing estate.
v) It is imperative to study the perception of individuals on housing satisfaction, rent, and government’s contribution to the betterment of individual and meeting their needs.
vi) Finally, to those in the academia and conflict researchers, this study will serve as a spring board for further investigation.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
Trend in housing development remains a problem that deserves to be minimized. This study will be restricted to the trends of houses, effective development of housing in Anantigha, Calabar
Therefore, this project is intended to examine the possible kinds of housing development and also look at what influence it has on residence of the area. The study will source its data from the target respondents who are residents of Anantigha in Calabar and as well use secondary sources of data such as textbooks, journals and internet.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
ASSESSMENT: The process of documenting knowledge, skills, attitudes, and beliefs.